A bunion (hallux valgus) is an enlarged bump of tissue or bone around the bottom of the big toe near the joint that causes swelling and tenderness. This enlarged bump is the result of changes in the structure of the bones on the front part of the foot. Bunions develop over time, beginning with the big toe leaning inward which changes the angle of the bones. These structural changes throw the bones that make up the big toe out of alignment and cause inflammation in the bursa (a sac of fluid) that cushions the joints in the big toe. More women than men suffer from bunions and they affect around 4.4 million people each year. Bunions may lead to chronic pain and arthritis and can be corrected by surgery.

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